Delivery method of Stem Cells
Stem cell transplant is the procedure in which the healthy cells also called as stem cells are infused into the human body to replace the diseased or damaged cells. And, the Bone marrow transplant is being used mainly to treat few types of cancer.
In case, If the patient’s bone marrow is not worth of developing or producing new healthy stem cells, then those cells can be borrowed from another person.
There are several major types of Stem Cell Implantation into the human body. They are as follows-
Intravenous Administration : the Intravenous administration is the IV infusion of stem cells into the blood veins. A slow drip of Mannitol is infused in the patient’s blood for boosting the blood volume in the central nervous system within the human body; so that large number of cells can reach the concerned targeted area. The IV medications are only administered by the qualified healthcare professional. This procedure usually takes about 20-30 minutes.
Intrathecal Administration (Lumbar Puncture) : This procedure is ideal for the neurological conditions.This procedure involves injections of the stem cells directly into the lumbar puncture or the spinal canal behind the blood-brain barrier. This helps the cells to reach the brain and spinal cord. This procedure is done under the sterile condition in an air-conditioned room. The intrathecal procedure takes usually about 30 minutes.
Intramuscular Administration : In this procedure, the Stem cells are infused directly into the body muscle. This is the very safe procedure and it does not require any anesthesia. This procedure is mostly used when there is need of the small quantity of the stem cells to be injected. The ideal sites for the injection of Mesenchymal Stem Cells are Knees, Thighs, and Hips. After infusion, the stem cells reach the targeted area and starts the repair and rejuvenation process.
Intra-arterial Administration via catheter : In this process, the stem cells are infused into the artery via thin catheter directly. The catheter is directed towards the damaged part to ensure the maximum number of cell delivery, using X-ray imaging. This type of administration is mainly used for various vascular organs such as heart, kidney or pancreas.
Retrobulbar Infusion of Cells : In this process, a local anesthetic is infused into the area located behind the globe of the eye called as the retrobulbar space. A concentrated amount of stem cells are injected in the concerned area for maximum output. This process is mainly used to treat various chronic eye disorders such as Macular Degeneration, Glaucoma, and others.
Intravitreal Infusion of Cells : In this process, the stem cells were injected directly into the Vitreous(Jelly-like substance filled in the human eye) near the retina at the back of the eye. Intravitreal injection (IVI) has brought a revolution the field of Ophthalmology.